Avoided ecological loss is an appropriate measure of conservation effectiveness, but challenging to measure because it requires consideration of counterfactual conditions. Land-use simulation is a well suited but under-utilized tool in this regard.
Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic wildlife like fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. As opposed to commercial fishing, in which fishermen harvest wild fish, aquaculture grows freshwater and saltwater species in controlled conditions. There are various kinds of aquaculture, but the two types of aquaculture this report will highlight in particular are: ■■Closed-containment finfish aquaculture (CCFA)■■Open-pen finfish aquaculture (OPFA)