- Average Temperatures: From -2 C to 6 C in summer and -35 C to -16 C in winter.
- Landscape: Mountainous with polar ice fields and deep valleys. Ice and rock cover 75 percent of this zone. Most of the area is non-vegetated.
- Wildlife: Polar bears and seabirds are found along coasts. Sheltered valleys are home to the Arctic fox, Arctic hare, ermine, collared lemming and birds such as the snow bunting.
- Points of Interest: Torngat Mountains, Auyuittuq, Sirmilik and Quttinirpaaq National Parks and Nirjutiqawik (Coburg Island) National Wildlife Area are located in this region.
- Human Activities: Hunting, fishing, ecotourism. Total population is about 1,100.
- Average Temperatures: From -1.5 C to 4 C in summer and -31 C to -20 C in winter.
- Landscape: Rolling plains and the occasional exposed rock with shallow soils. Permafrost is continuous and may extend to several hundred metres in depth. Plant life is sparse.
- Wildlife: Peary and barren ground caribou, muskox, wolf, Arctic fox, polar bear, Arctic hare, and brown and collared lemming. This ecozone is a major breeding habitat for migratory birds (e.g., the Canada goose).
- Points of Interest: A number of protected areas are located in this region such as Aulavik and Ukkusiksalik National Parks, Katannilik Territorial Park, Banks Island No. 1 Migratory Bird Sanctuary and Thelon Wildlife Sanctuary, Dewey Soper Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Queen Maud Gulf Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Polar Bear National Wildlife Area, the Rasmussen Lowlands and the Soper Canadian Heritage River.
- Human Activities: Hunting, trapping, fishing. Of a total population of 16,000 people, about 80 percent are Inuit.
- Average Temperatures: From 4 C to 6 C in summer and -28 C to -17.5 C in winter.
- Landscape: Rolling uplands and lowlands with exposures of bedrock. This ecozone is a transition area between the treed taiga to the south and the treeless tundra to the north.
- Wildlife: The grizzly, black and polar bear, wolf, moose, Arctic ground squirrel and brown lemming are among the mammals that live here. Birds living in this region include the yellow-billed, Arctic and red-throated loons, oldsquaw duck, snowy owl and snow bunting. This area is a major breeding and nesting ground for migratory birds.
- Points of Interest: This region includes the major summer range and calving grounds for Canada's largest caribou herds, the barren ground caribou in the west and the woodland caribou in the east. It also contains several protected areas including Tuktut Nogait National Park, Ijiraliq Territorial Park, Thelon Wildlife Sanctuary, Anderson River Migratory Bird Sanctuary and the Thelon Canadian Heritage River.
- Human Activities: Hunting, fishing, trapping, tourism, mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, and some extraction. Of the total population of about 10,300, 80 percent are Inuit.
- Average Temperatures: From 6.5 to 14 C in summer and -26 C to -15 C in winter.
- Landscape: Mostly slow-growing conifer forests of black spruce with widespread permafrost. Shrubs are well-developed. Upland areas support mixed forests (e.g., white and black spruce, tamarack).
- Wildlife: Moose, woodland caribou, wood bison, wolf, black bear, marten, lynx, Arctic ground squirrel, barren ground caribou. Birds include the common redpoll, gray jay, common raven, bald eagle, peregrine falcon and osprey.
- Points of Interest: Canada's largest river, the Mackenzie, and its tributaries dominate this ecozone. The Mackenzie Valley is a major migratory corridor for waterfowl breeding along the Arctic coast. Nahanni National Park Reserve, a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization World Heritage Site, and the South Nahanni Canadian Heritage River are located in this ecozone.
- Human Activities: Hunting, trapping, fishing, forestry, tourism, mining, oil and gas extraction. About 60 percent of the total population of 21,400 is Aboriginal.
- Average Temperatures: From 6.5 C to 10 C in summer and -25 C to -19.5 C in winter.
- Landscape: Mountainous wilderness with foothills and narrow valleys. Permafrost underlies most of this area, including most wetlands. Arctic tundra occurs in the north with taiga or open woodland in the south.
- Wildlife: Diverse forms of wildlife include the Dall sheep, woodland and barren ground caribou, moose, mountain goat, black and grizzly bear, wolf, lynx, Arctic ground squirrel, American pika, hoary marmot and wolverine. Birds include the gyrfalcon, willow and rock ptarmigans and waterfowl.
- Points of Interest: Thousands of swans, Canada geese and other waterfowl nest or stage in the Yukon's Old Crow Flats, a Wetland of International Importance. Ivvavik and Vuntut National Parks, Fishing Branch Ni'iinlii'njik Park and the Arctic Red Canadian Heritage River are also located in this ecozone.
- Human Activities: Hunting, trapping, ecotourism, outdoor recreation and mineral exploration. About eighty percent of the population (about 300 people) resides in Old Crow, Yukon's northernmost settlement.
- Average Temperatures: From 6 C to 11 C in summer and -11 C to -24.5 C in winter.
- Landscape: Rolling terrain with widespread permafrost. Thousands of lakes and wetlands and open forests are interwoven with shrublands and meadows typical of the Arctic tundra.
- Wildlife: About 50 species of mammal live here, including the barren ground and woodland caribou, moose, wolf, snowshoe hare, Arctic fox, beaver, black and grizzly bears, and lynx. The Arctic and red-throated loons and graycheeked thrush live in this zone. Thousands of birds rest and feed here on their way to Arctic breeding grounds.
- Points of Interest: The northern edge of this ecozone is the latitudinal limit of tree growth. The East Arm of Great Slave Lake is a proposed National Park.
- Human Activities: Mineral exploration, petroleum exploration and hydroelectric developments, forestry, hunting, fishing and trapping. Total population is about 33,600.
- Average Temperatures: From 9.5 C to 11.5 C in summer and -1 C to -23 C in winter.
- Landscape: Mountainous ranges, extensive plateaus, wide valleys and lowlands with widespread permafrost. Tree species include alpine fir, trembling aspen, balsam poplar and white birch.
- Wildlife: The woodland caribou, moose, Dall sheep, mountain goat, black and grizzly bear, marten, lynx, American pika, hoary marmot and Arctic ground squirrel. Birds include the willow, rock and white-tailed ptarmigans, and migratory songbirds and waterfowl.
- Points of Interest: Several important protected areas are located in this ecozone, including Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Nisutlin River Delta National Wildlife Area, Coal River Springs Territorial Park and the Alsek Canadian Heritage River.
- Human Activities: Mining, forestry, tourism, hydroelectric development. Total population is about 30,800.
- Average Temperatures: From 10.5 C to 11.5 C in summer and -19 C and -16 C in winter.
- Landscape: This lowland plain slopes toward Hudson and James Bays with extensive wetlands and marshes and tidal flats along coastlines. Better-drained areas support open woodlands of black spruce and tamarack.
- Wildlife: The woodland caribou, moose, black and polar bears, marten and Arctic fox.
- Points of Interest: The Hayes Canadian Heritage River, Wapusk National Park and the Moose River, Hannah Bay, Boatswain Bay and McConnell River Migratory Bird Sanctuaries are located in this area. The latter is also a Wetland of International Importance, as is Polar Bear Provincial Park. This ecozone is an important habitat for breeding waterfowl, especially the Canada goose.
- Human Activities: Hunting, fishing and trapping with some sport fishing and tourism. Total population is approximately 9,900.
*Taiga is a Russian word that refers to the northern edge of the boreal forest — "land of little sticks."
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